judean civil war
Protests over taxation joined the list of grievances and random attacks on Roman citizens and perceived 'traitors' occurred in Jerusalem. Bitter infighting between factions of Simon, John and Eleazar followed through the year 69. A new military governor was then appointed from Rome, Sextus Lucilius Bassus, whose assigned task was to undertake the "mopping-up" operations in Judea. Following the defeat of Gallus in Beth Horon, the People's Assembly was called under the spiritual guidance of Simeon ben Gamliel and thus the Judean provisional government was formed in Jerusalem.  While the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) and the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136 CE) were nationalist rebellions, striving to restore an independent Judean state, the Kitos War was more of an ethno-religious conflict, mostly fought outside Judea Province. 2017. The Roman military garrison of Judaea was quickly overrun by rebels, while the pro-Roman king Herod Agrippa II together with Roman officials fled Jerusalem. The Jewish–Roman wars include the following: The First Jewish–Roman War began in the year 66 CE, originating in the Greek and Jewish religious tensions, and later escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens. With the Parthian threat from the East, major Jewish communities throughout the Eastern Mediterranean revolted in 117 CE. A brutal civil war then erupted, with the Zealots and the fanatical Sicarii executing anyone advocating surrender. Vespasian's son Titus was appointed as second-in-command. ... Antipater the Idumean, a rich Idumean and an influential person in the Judean politics had a very big dislike of Aristobulus and preferred Hyrcanus as king, for this reason he spoke with Hyrcanus, convincing him to fight for the crown, and spoke to Aretas III, king of the Nabataeans …  The Roman governor, Gessius Florus, responded by plundering the Second Temple, claiming the money was for the Emperor, and the next day launching a raid on the city, arresting numerous senior Jewish figures. 2003. Gallus later reached Acre in Western Galilee, and then marched on Caesarea and Jaffa, where he massacred some 8,400 people.  Faced with Florus as a procurator, the Jews attempted to garner support from the governor of Syria—at the time, Cestius Gallus. In the middle of 68, the emperor Nero's increasingly erratic behavior finally lost him all support for his position. Before Vespasian's departure, the Pharisaic sage and Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai obtained his permission to establish a Judaic school at Yavne. The Forts of Judea 168 BCE – CE 73. The Jewish–Roman wars are often cited as a disaster to Jewish society. Africa at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Despair and Hope Some 6,000 Roman troops were killed and many more wounded in the battle, with Legio XII Fulminata losing its aquila, as Gallus abandoned his troops in disarray, fleeing to Syria. , They also built themselves a great many piratical ships, and turned pirates upon the seas near to Syria, and Phoenicia, and Egypt, and made those seas unnavigable to all men.. The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 135 CE.  The revolt was further intensified when Florus attempted to stop the riots, which actually incited more revolutionary zeal.. His wife and daughters in the might of their purity and innocence are supposed never to … Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://www.academia.edu/4909339/THE_JEWISH_CHRISTIANS_MOVE_FROM_JERUSALEM_AS_A_PRAGMATIC_CHOICE, "Silver Shekel from the First Jewish Revolt, 66–70 CE", Diasporas and Exiles: Varieties of Jewish Identity, Abraham's Knife: The Mythology of the Deicide in Anti-Semitism, In Depth Lecture on the First Roman-Jewish War and Destruction of the 2nd Tempe, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=First_Jewish–Roman_War&oldid=1001230861, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2015, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2013, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2008, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  Josephus puts the number of the besieged at near 1 million. During the infighting inside the city walls, a stockpiled supply of dry food was intentionally burned by the Zealots to induce the defenders to fight against the siege, instead of negotiating peace; as a result many city dwellers and soldiers died of starvation during the siege. As it became clear the rebellion was getting out of control, Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought in the Syrian army, based on Legion XII Fulminata and reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. THE JUDEAN WAR 80 in all, overtook the rest and were taken up into the boat. Hadrian (emperor 117–138 CE) attempted to completely root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions. Bitter infighting between factions of Bar Giora, John and Elazar followed through the year 69 CE. While the war in Judea was in progress, great events were occurring in Rome. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. Watch Judean Roman War 66 - 70 A D - SpaceCowboyKenny . While the First Jewish–Roman War and the Bar Kokhba revolt were nationalist rebellions, striving to restore an independent Judean state, the Kitos War was more of an ethno-religious conflict, mostly fought outside Judea Province.  The rabbis filled the void of Jewish leadership in the aftermath of the Great Revolt, and they created a new kind of Judaism through their literature and teachings.. The immense number of casualties during the Kitos War depopulated Cyrenaica and Cyprus and also reduced Jewish and Greco-Roman populations in the region.  Florus reacted to the unrest by sending soldiers into Jerusalem the next day to raid the city and arrest a number of the city leaders, who were later whipped and crucified, despite many of them being Roman citizens. Following increasing Roman domination of the Eastern Mediterranean, the client kingdom of the Herodian dynasty had been officially merged into the Roman Empire in the year 6 CE with the creation of the Roman province of Judea. The first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, Towns and fortresses destroyed during the, Gallus' campaign and Judean provisional government, Cohen, Shaye. , Vespasian remained camped at Caesarea Maritima until spring 68, preparing for another campaign in the Judean and Samarian highlands. In 67 CE he invaded Galilee. During the final stages of the Roman attack, Zealots under John of Giscala still held the Temple, while the Sicarii, led by Simon Bar Giora, held the upper city. All three walls of Jerusalem were eventually destroyed as well as the Temple and the citadels; the city was then put to the torch, with most survivors taken into slavery; some of those overturned stones and their place of impact can still be seen. The Judean rebels, who withdrew from Sepphoris, took refuge at Atzmon hill, but were defeated following a short siege. Fielding more than 60,000 soldiers, Vespasian began operations by subjugating Galilee. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Choisir vos préférences en matière de cookies. Although only the final chapter of the Kitos War was fought in Judea, the revolt is considered part of the Jewish–Roman Wars.  The crisis escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens by the Jews. Receiving the news of the carnage in Jerusalem, Simon bar Giora left Masada and began pillaging Idumea with his loyal troops, setting his headquarters in Na'an; he met little resistance and joined forces with Idumean leaders, including Jacob ben Susa. Following the fall of Jerusalem, in the year 71 Titus left for Rome, leaving Legion X Fretensis to defeat the remaining Jewish strongholds including Herodium and Machaerus, finalizing the Roman campaign in Masada in 73–74. Despite initial advances and the conquest of Jaffa, the Syrian Legion was ambushed and defeated by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon with 6,000 Romans massacred and the Legion's aquila lost. The consequent riot which erupted was the first in a series of revolts, and led to the formation of several revolutionary factions. The Kitos War (115–117 CE) also known as mered ha'galuyot or mered ha'tfutzot (Rebellion of the exile) is the name given to the second of the Jewish–Roman wars. This school later became a major center of Talmudic study (see Mishnah). [better source needed] In 38 CE, Caligula sent Herod Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus. 37–39, 47–48. “The Archaeology of Roman Palestine.”, Goodman, Martin. The Judean rebels avoided direct confrontation with the Roman troops, as multiple factions were mostly interested in their own control and survival, rather than Roman defeat. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. In the summer of 70, following a seven-month siege, Titus eventually used the collapse of several of the city walls to breach Jerusalem, ransacking and burning nearly the entire city. Following a brutal seven-month siege, in which Zealot infighting resulted in the burning of the entire food supply of the city to enhance "fighting to the end", the Romans finally succeeded in breaching the weakened Jewish forces in the summer of 70 CE. Despite the upheaval brought by the revolt, and the destruction of the Temple, Jewish life continued to thrive in Judea. With the departure of Vespasian, who had opposed an open siege upon Jerusalem, fearing to lose many troops against the fortified city, Titus advanced his legions upon the capital of the rebellious province.  In 39 CE, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Headquartered in Masada, the Sicarii notably terrorized nearby Judean villages such as Ein Gedi. Rocca S. 2008. It covers: the succession struggle, the governments of Herod's sons, Judea's incorporation as a Roman province, some … Unable to breach the city's defenses, the Roman armies established a permanent camp just outside the city, digging a trench around the circumference of its walls and building a wall as high as the city walls themselves around Jerusalem. iv.6,§2; Orosius "Hist." While the first two walls of Jerusalem were breached within three weeks, a stubborn stand prevented the Roman Army from breaking the third and thickest wall. Show more less Wiki . During the spring of 71, Titus set sail for Rome. 2002. Based on questionable numbers from Josephus, it has been estimated that the Roman vanquishing of Galilee resulted in 100,000 Jews killed or sold into slavery. 1:Ituraean light infantry archer.2:Jewish theurophoros.3:Roman legionary. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. After his orders for surrender were rejected, Silva established several base camps and circumvallated the fortress. "Nerva, the Fiscus Judaicus and Jewish identity. Eventually, led by their commander Metilius, the garrison surrendered in exchange for unhindered passage from the city, but, led by Eliezar, the Jewish rebels slaughtered all the surrendered soldiers, except for Metilius, who was forced to convert to Judaism. , Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 between Jews and Greeks. The Romans began by attacking the weakest spot: the third wall. After a lull in the military operations, owing to civil war and political turmoil in Rome, Vespasian was called to Rome and appointed as Emperor in 69.  The governor of Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year. The fall of Galilee to Vespasian's legionaries prompted internal strife among the Jewish factions in 68 AD, and Vespasian waited for the enemies to die by their own hand rather than take on the fanatics on the battlefield. The Roman Senate, the Praetorian Guard and several prominent army commanders conspired for his removal. King Herod ruled Jerusalem from 37 BCE – 4 BCE as a vassal king for the Roman Empire, having been appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate. The Roman Army took Gophna, Akrabta, Bet-El, Ephraim and Hebron by July 69. , Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 CE between Jews and Greeks. With the Romanization of the Jewish Hellenised classes came a recrudescence of corruption that had previously flared under Antiochus IV Epiphanes and the Seleu… "Gender, War, and Josephus. The first two walls of Jerusalem were breached within three weeks, but a stubborn rebel standoff prevented the Roman Army from breaking the third and thickest wall. The Jewish–Roman wars had a dramatic impact on the Jewish people, turning them from a major population in the Eastern Mediterranean into a scattered and persecuted minority. In the spring of 68, Vespasian began a systematic campaign to subdue various rebel-held strongholds in Judea proper, recapturing Afeq, Lydda, Javneh, and Jaffa that spring. cx; Eusebius "Hist. units: credits for BigBadWolf and Subotai! Cum să-ți spun Judean Engleză? In response to this action, the city fell into unrest and some of the Jewish population began to openly mock Florus by passing a basket around to collect money as if Florus was poor. "Judean Authorities," as in "The CROWD WHO SUPPORTED THE JUDEAN AUTHORITIES answered him, 'We have a law, and according to that … . Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. But we aren’t Spain, and a country as middle class and as … [better source needed] Flaccus tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula by having statues of the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues. The Judean Civil War initially began after the conquest of Gaza around 99 BCE. Lucius Flavius Silva replaced him, and moved against the last Judean stronghold, Masada, in the autumn of 72. 4)fix units animation glitches. Although initially pacified (the years between 7 and 26 CE being relatively quiet), the province continued to be a source of trouble under Emperor Caligula (after 37 CE).  Disputes occurred also in the city of Jamnia.  Agrippa finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order.  Jews were accused of not honoring the emperor. Given four legions and assisted by forces of King Agrippa II, Vespasian invaded Galilee in 67. He decided, upon gaining further widespread support, to leave his son Titus to finish the war in Judea, while he returned to Rome to claim the throne from the usurper Vitellius, who had already deposed Otho. Judea; Judea lost its independence to the Romans in the 1st century BCE, becoming first a tributary kingdom, then a province, of the Roman Empire. Series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 135 CE, Roman Judea, Cyprus, Cyrenaica, Mesopotamia, Justin, "Apologia", ii.71, compare "Dial." Although having a sort of autonomy in Galilee until the 4th century and later a limited success in establishing the short-lived Sasanian Jewish autonomy in Jerusalem in 614–617 CE, Jewish dominance in parts of the Southern Levant was regained only in the mid-20th century, with the founding of the modern state of Israel in 1948 CE. Several rulers favorable to Rome of whom Herod the Great was the most famous governed Judea until 6 ad. Then with the concentration of the cultus at Jerusalem represented by Deuteronomy, the celebration was restricted to the Judean capital, and its duration fixed at …  Shortly, outraged Judean nationalist factions took up arms and the Roman military garrison of Jerusalem was quickly overrun by rebels. The Roman general Pompey intervened and attacked Jerusalem in 66 bc. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. Yosef ben Matityahu (Josephus) was appointed the rebel commander in Galilee and Eleazar ben Hanania as the commander in Edom.  In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Temple of Jerusalem, a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism. ", This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 13:32.  Flaccus tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula by having statues of the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues. Series Flavius Josephus : translation and Commentary -- v. 1b. He later continued into Idumea and Perea, and eventually to the Judean and Samarian highlands where Bar Giora's faction was causing major concern to the Romans. Herod had all relatives of the previous dynasty, the Hasmonean dynasty, executed. Civil War Food Rations. Despite the upheaval brought by the revolt, and the destruction of the Temple, Jewish life continued to thrive in Judea. Conquering town after town, Titus quickly advanced through the hill country, while the brutal suppression created an immense wave of Judean refugees, seeking shelter in fortified Jerusalem. Although having a sort of autonomy in the Galilee until the 4th century and later a limited success in establishing the short-lived Sasanian Jewish autonomy in Jerusalem in 614–617 CE, Jewish dominance in parts of the Southern Levant was regained only in the mid-20th century, with the founding of the modern state of Israel in 1948 CE. With Vespasian's departure, Titus besieged the center of rebel resistance in Jerusalem in early 70 CE. 6 Now on the next day, which was the seventh, when the Judeans had gathered in their congregation, a certain Caesarean agitator turned over a belly-vase at their entryway, and …  In reaction, one of the Jewish Temple clerks Eleazar ben Hanania ceased prayers and sacrifices for the Roman Emperor at the Temple. His son Titus was appointed second-in-command. The revolt, which concentrated in the Galilee, began as sporadic insurgency and in 48 was put down by Roman authorities and both brothers executed. [better source needed] In 38, Caligula sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus.  Agrippa finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order..  However, only Caligula's death at the hands of Roman conspirators in 41 CE prevented a full-scale war in Judaea, that might have well spread to the entire Eastern Roman Empire. Nous utilisons des cookies et des outils similaires pour faciliter vos achats, fournir nos services, pour comprendre comment les … "Flavius Josephus on the Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire. Due to Jannaeus's victory at Gaza, the Nabataean kingdom no longer had direct access to the Mediterranean Sea . However, confrontation between the mainly Sadducee Jerusalemites and the mainly Zealot factions of the Northern Revolt under the command of John of Giscala and Eleazar ben Simon became evident.  With the fall of Jerusalem, some insurrection still continued in isolated locations in Judea, lasting as long as 73. Conflicts and rebellions are everywhere observable in Africa, along with civil war, all of which give birth to crises. Later, this school became a major center of Talmudic study (see Mishnah). [Flavius Josephus; Steve Mason; Honora Chapman] Home. Although Bar Kokhba was initially successful against Roman forces and established a short-lived state, the eventual Roman effort defeated Bar Kokhba's rebels.  Driven from Galilee, Zealot rebels and thousands of refugees arrived in Jerusalem, creating political turmoil. , Caligula's death did not stop the tensions completely and in 46 CE an insurrection led by two brothers, the Jacob and Simon uprising, broke out in the Judea province.  Herod also created a new line of nobility that would have loyalties to only him, known as the Herodians. Alexander soon captured Gadara, which together with the loss of Gaza caused the Nabataeans to lose their main trade routes leading to Rome and Damascus . After Herod's death, several relatives made claims to the region, beginning with the Herodian Tetrarchy. The Jacob and Simon uprising was instigated by the two eponymous brothers, and lasted between 46–48. Apr 3, 2019 - Nabateans, Judean , Arameans and Syrian natives - Page 2 - Tutorials, references and art help - Wildfire Games Community Forums The transition of the client kingdom into a Roman province brought a great deal of tension and a Jewish uprising by Judas of Galilee erupted as a response to the Census of Quirinius. Huge loss of life occurred, including that of the former High Priest Ananias. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. As it became clear the rebellion was getting out of control, Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought the Syrian army, based on XII Fulminata and reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. Labor workers, which had been employed at Herod's large-scale construction sites, became impoverished. The Jewish–Roman wars had a dramatic impact on the Jews, turning them from a major population in the Eastern Mediterranean into a scattered and persecuted minority.  Because of illness, Bassus did not live to complete his mission. Following increasing Roman domination of the Eastern Mediterranean, the initially semi-independent Herodian dynasty was officially merged into the Roman Empire in the year 6 CE. , The years 7–26 were relatively calm, but after 37 the province again began to be a source of trouble for Emperor Caligula. The Judean province did not initially include Galilee, Gaulanitis (today's Golan), nor Peraea or the Decapolis. Caligula did not trust the prefect of Roman Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Many towns associated with the Jewish elite gave up without a fight – including Sepphoris and Tiberias, although others had to be taken by force. But the kindest creature to his slaves—and the unfortunate results of his bad ways were not sold, had not to jump over ice blocks. Similarly, he re-established Jerusalem, this time as the Roman polis of Aelia Capitolina, and Jews were barred from entering the city, except on the fast day of Tisha B'Av.. This revolt was quickly put down by the Romans.  In this context, Philo writes that Caligula "regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his". , According to fourth-century church fathers Eusebius and Epiphanius, Jerusalem's Jewish Christians fled to Pella before the beginning of the war.. The rabbinic groups’ power did not derive from the temple or from military prowess, which enabled their power to spread among synagogues to different communities. Continuing his military campaign, Gallus took Lydda and Afek (Antipatris) and engaged Jerusalemite rebels in Geva, where he lost nearly 500 Roman troops to Judean rebels led by Simon bar Giora, reinforced by allied volunteers from Adiabene. The revolt, known as the Kitos War in 115–117, which took place mainly in the diaspora (in Cyprus, Egypt, Mesopotamia and only marginally in Judea), while poorly-organized, was extremely violent and took two years for the Roman armies to subdue. "Wartime Rape, the Romans, and the First Jewish Revolt. Among other events, the Sicarii rebel faction surprised the Roman garrison of Masada and took over the fortress. Meantime in Jerusalem, an attempt by Sicarii leader Menahem to take control of the city failed, resulting in his execution. He appointed new high priests from families that were not connected to the past dynasty. Former High Priest Ananus ben Ananus (Hanan ben Hanan) was appointed one of the government heads and began reinforcing the city, with other prominent figure of Joseph ben Gurion, with Joshua ben Gamla taking a leading role. 5)add more naval units. The Great Revolt began in the year 66 CE, during the twelfth year of the reign of Nero, originating in Roman and Jewish religious tensions. The revolt, mainly in the Galilee, began as sporadic insurgency; when it climaxed in 48 CE it was quickly put down by Roman authorities.  Jews were accused of not honoring the emperor. The Roman garrison on Jerusalem's western border became besieged and was unable to assist those who opposed rebellion. Despite the pillage of Ashkelon's countryside, the campaign was a disaster for the Judeans, who failed to take the city and lost some 8,000 militia men to the small defending Roman garrison. 2)make the Judean political system use Hellenic ranks instead of barbarian ranks. Although Jewish Christians hailed Jesus as the Messiah and did not support Bar Kokhba, they were barred from Jerusalem along with the rest of the Jews. According to Josephus, the violence which began at Caesarea in 66 was provoked by Greeks of a certain merchant house sacrificing birds in front of a local synagogue. Following a brutal seven-month siege, during which Zealot infighting resulted in the burning of the entire food supplies of the city, the Romans finally succeeded in breaching the defenses of the weakened Jewish forces in the summer of 70. The rabbi obtained permission to establish a Judaic school at Yavne, which became a major center of Talmudic study. The triumph was commemorated with the Arch of Titus, which depicts the Temple's treasures being paraded. , Many of the Jewish rebels were scattered or sold into slavery. This became the crucial mark in the development of the Rabbinic Judaism, which would allow Jews to continue their culture and religion without the Temple and essentially even in diaspora.  The Jewish Temple was then breached by Roman troops at the order of the procurator Gessius Florus, who had seventeen talents removed from the treasury of the Temple, claiming the money was for the Emperor. ", According to Philostratus' Life of Apollonius, Titus refused to accept a wreath of victory offered by the groups neighboring Judaea, on the grounds that he had only been the instrument of divine wrath.. Judean Civil War - The Judean Civil War was a conflict between King Alexander Jannaeus and the Pharisees, the dominant political party in the Great Sanhedrin at the time. Read more about this topic: Judea. During 66, the Judean provisional government was formed in Jerusalem including former High Priest Ananus ben Ananus, Joseph ben Gurion and Joshua ben Gamla elected as leaders. 2015.  Though dissatisfaction with Roman rule eventually led to the Bar Kokhba revolt in 132–136 CE.  After Herod's death, the poor economy led to riots, and due to the lack of leadership in the region, the violence was not controlled. ", This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 20:24. The result was a level of destruction and death that has been described as a genocide of the Jews, a ban on Judaism, and the renaming of the province from Judea to Syria Palaestina, with many Jews being sold into slavery or fleeing to other areas around the Mediterranean. This changed the way Judaism was practiced on a daily basis, which included changing from sacrificing animals to praying in order to worship God. Judean militias later moved upon Roman citizens of Judaea and pro-Roman officials, cleansing the country of any Roman symbols. The Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136 CE, Hebrew: מרד בר כוכבא) was the third major rebellion by the Jews of Judaea Province and the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire and the last of the Jewish–Roman wars. Josephus Matthias (Yosef ben Matityahu) was appointed the commander in Galilee and Golan, while Josephus Simon (Yosef ben Shimon) was appointed commander of Jericho, John the Issene (Yohanan Issean) commander of Jaffa, Lydda, Ammeus-Nikopolis and the whole Tamna area. Political turmoil in Jerusalem FRANCE Heures d'ouverture 08h30-12h30/13h30-17h30 Watch Judean Roman War 66 70! Of nobility that would have loyalties to only him, and J. Andrew Overman eds... Roman Military garrison of Jerusalem to their stronghold Masada, previously taken from a Roman garrison of Masada took! Contains `` Book 2 of Josephus ' Judean War the previous dynasty executed... Roman garrison Jaffa, where he massacred some 8,400 people was left all... A brutal civil War between two claimants to the Mediterranean Sea the spring of 71, Titus the... A despotic rule over the city which became a major center of rebel Judean forces from open to., only one group was left with all the power – the,... 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